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Climatology, branch of the atmospheric sciences concerned with both the description of climate and the analysis of the causes of climatic differences and changes and their practical consequences. Climatology includes the systematic and regional studies of atmospheric conditions i.e. weather and climate. Both climatology and meteorology are branches of physical science that deal with the weather. While they are related to one another in many ways, they aren’t the same thing. Dynamic climatology is the study of large-scale patterns and how they can be used to understand global weather. Physical climatology is the study of physical processes such as evaporation, cloud formation, aerosol dispersal, and more. Paleoclimatology deals with the reconstruction of past climates using fossil evidence, ice cores, and tree rings. Climate indices are large-scale weather patterns that are consistent and measureable. The goal of an index is to combine a number of factors into a large, generalized description of either air or ocean phenomena that can be used to track the global climate system.
The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole, and everywhere in between. Globally, the mercury is already up more than 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius), and even more in sensitive Polar Regions. Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earth’s poles. This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice. Sea level rise became faster over the last century. Precipitation (rain and snowfall) has increased across the globe, on average. The effects of global warming on the Earth's ecosystems are expected to be profound and widespread. Many species of plants and animals are already moving their range northward or to higher altitudes as a result of warming temperatures. As dramatic as the effects of climate change are expected to be on the natural world, the projected changes to human society may be even more devastating. Agricultural systems will likely be dealt a crippling blow. A study has shown that though CO2 can increase the growth of plants, the plants may become less nutritious. The effect of global warming on human health is also expected to be serious. An increase rise in cases of chronic conditions like asthma, are already occurring, most likely as a direct result of global warming.
Pollution is the presence of a pollutant in the environment and is often the result of human actions. Pollution has a detrimental effect on the environment. Animals, fish and other aquatic life, plants and humans all suffer when pollution is not controlled. One of the greatest problems that the world is facing today is that of environmental pollution, increasing with every passing year and causing grave and irreparable damage to the earth. In some cases, air pollutants contribute to climate change, and greenhouse gases contribute to air pollution. Climate change itself may have a direct impact on air quality. Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based. Marine environment is adversely affected by marine pollution. The release of greenhouse gases cause the ocean to become warmer and causes the marine climate to become unfriendly resulting in damage to the marine ecosystem and marine life.
One of the greatest issues confronting us at this moment is global warming. Its consequences for creatures and on farming are in reality startling, and the impacts on the human populace are significantly scarier. The actualities about a worldwide temperature alteration are regularly discussed in legislative issues and the media, however, sadly, regardless of the possibility that we differ about the causes, an unnatural weather change impacts are genuine, worldwide, and quantifiable. The causes are mostly from us, mankind, and the impacts on us will be serious. Right around 100% of the watched temperature increment in the course of the most recent 50 years has been because of the expansion in the climate of greenhouse gas fixations like water vapor, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and ozone. Greenhouse gases are those gasses that add to the greenhouse impact. The biggest contributing wellspring of greenhouse gas is the smoldering of fossil powers prompting the discharge of carbon dioxide.
Biodiversity scenarios are a valuable tool to help policymakers foresee how widely varied vegetation will probably react to future natural conditions. The researchers say this unevenness makes situations less tenable, and make recommendations for growing more conceivable projections. Driven by human ways of life, biodiversity is in decline around the world. Recent extinction rates are 100 to 1 000 times their pre-human levels over an extensive variety of situations, bringing about natural policymakers extraordinary concern. Basic to averting further biodiversity misfortune are conceivable situations of future natural conditions. A forward-looking approach is particularly important when it comes to biodiversity as the causes of its decline and the impact of those causes change over time. Moreover, the later action is taken, the more costly and time consuming it is for it to be effective, and the less likely it is to prevent damage. Here are a number of factors which result in biodiversity decline, including loss of habitat. Habitat destruction and degradation result from changes in the types of vegetation and infrastructure that are on the land cover and changes to the way humans manage the land use. These changes can occur for various reasons, including residential and commercial building, agriculture and energy production and building roads.
Carbon sequestration is a set of technologies that can greatly reduce CO2 emissions from new and existing coal- and gas-fired power plants and large industrial sources. Carbon sequestration includes: Capture of CO2, Transport of the captured and compressed CO2 and Underground injection and geologic sequestration of the CO2 into deep underground rock formations. Carbon sequestration is important because it could play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, while enabling low-carbon electricity generation from power plants. Carbon sequestration can significantly reduce emissions from large stationary sources of CO2, which include coal- and natural-gas-fired power plants, as well as certain industry types such as ethanol and natural gas processing plants. There are nevertheless significant drawbacks associated with reliance on geo sequestration as a major contributor to the reduction of GHG emissions in the context of climate change mitigation. A far less high-tech way is biological sequestration and it encourages organic farming practices, increased organic inputs to farm soils, and low-tillage farming systems. Not only do organically rich soils sequester CO2, they also have higher crop yields and lower fertilizer input requirements (also reducing CO2 emissions).
The carbon cycle is the circulation and transformation of carbon back and forth between living things and the environment. Carbon is a component, something that can't be separated into a less difficult substance. Carbon mixes are available in living things like plants and creatures and in nonliving things like rocks and soil. Carbon mixes can exist as solids, (such as diamonds or coal) liquids, (for example, raw petroleum), or gasses, (for example, carbon dioxide). Carbon is frequently alluded to as the "building block of life" since living things depend on carbon and carbon compounds. Carbon is exchanged, or "cycled" among Earth's seas, environment, biological system, and geosphere. It is an imperative part of many chemical processes. It is available in the air fundamentally as carbon dioxide (CO2), additionally as different less inexhaustible yet climatically critical gasses, for example, methane (CH4).
Climate change may not be responsible for the recent skyrocketing cost of natural disasters, but it is very likely that it will impact future catastrophes. Climate models provide a glimpse of the future, and while they do not agree on all of the details, most models predict a few general trends. First, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will probably boost temperatures over most land surfaces, though the exact change will vary regionally. More uncertain but possible outcomes of an increase in global temperatures include increased risk of drought and increased intensity of storms, including tropical cyclones with higher wind speeds, a wetter Asian monsoon, and, possibly, more intense mid-latitude storms. An increase in the frequency of floods, desertification and droughts, forest fire events is very likely. Agriculture also receives the impact of these hazards and causes economic losses of billions annually.
Adaptation can be described as a policy approach which seeks to protect people, buildings, infrastructure, businesses and ecosystems against the negative impacts of climate change, but also build resilience to that change, allowing society to take advantage of any opportunities that it might bring. Examples of adaptation actions include adjusting building regulations to take account of predicted future climate conditions; building and reinforcing flood defences and choosing tree species and implementing forestry practices that are less vulnerable to storms, temperature extremes and fires.
Green initiatives are aimed at reducing the environmental impact of diiferent operations; developing and bringing to market new sustainable products, protecting the safety and health of people, and complying fully with environmental regulations and standards.
The increasing trend in Recycling and Waste Management has increased. Recycling is a way of life. Once we have made that choice to implement all the steps of recycling in our daily lives, and stick to that choice every single day, recycling becomes second nature to us. Sure there will be lapses; it’s not easy for us creatures of habit. But no matter, we press on. Every small contribution to the recycling movement and the initiative to protect our Environment adds up to how our present Society eventually shapes our Nation’s and the Earth’s future. Waste Management or Waste disposal is all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal. Very one of us has an important role to play in reducing the quantity of waste buried in landfills. Sorting waste in order to recycle or compost it are efficient means to reduce garbage.
Emissions of greenhouse gases have a global impact, unlike some other forms of pollution. Whether they are emitted in Asia, Africa, Europe, or the Americas, they rapidly disperse evenly across the globe. This is one reason why efforts to address climate change have been through international collaboration and agreement. Although climate change agreements emphasising carbon emission reduction have been reached through international approaches, the policy measures to meet the obligations and objectives set by such agreements have been implemented at the national or regional level. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), to keep global warming below 2 °C, emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) must be halved by 2050 (compared with 1990 levels). Developed countries will need to reduce more – between 80 % and 95 % by 2050; advanced developing countries with large emissions (e.g. China, India and Brazil) will have to limit their emission growth.
Reducing greenhouse gas emissions is the key to solving global climate change. A major way these gases get into the atmosphere is when people burn coal, oil, and natural gas for energy. Eliminating the burning of coal, oil and, eventually, natural gas helps in reducing Global warming. The easiest way to cut back on greenhouse gas emissions is simply to buy less stuff. The other solution is to be energy efficient.We have to think green when making purchases. Purchasing energy-efficient gadgets can also save both energy and money. Afforestation and forest management is one of the best climate change solution. Coal to gas fuel switching can also be done as a solution to climate change.
Climate change is the most significant challenge to achieving sustainable development, and it threatens to drag a huge number of individuals into grinding poverty. Climate change is just a long-term issue. It is going on today, and it involves instabilities for policy makers attempting to shape the future. Sustainability is no longer just a fashionable word. It is an organized way to achieving a holistic and triple bottom line growth. Apart from risk identification and mitigation, as well as a significant improvement in the efficiency of processes and systems for optimization of resources, the other proven tangible and intangible benefits of sustainability include its positive impact on employees’ morale, an organization being recognized as an employer of choice, supply chains being motivated to adopt leading practices and consumers being educated on the importance of responsible behaviour. After years of it being perceived as cost-centric, we are now finally realizing the true value-addition made by implementation of sustainability-related measures.
The effects of human-incited climate changes are expanding across the country. We have observed atmosphere related increments in our presentation to raised temperatures; more successive, serious, or longer-enduring outrageous occasions; corrupted air quality; diseases transmitted through food, water, and infection vectors and stresses to our mental health and well-being. All of these dangers are required to intensify with proceeded with climate change. The impacts of climate and atmosphere on human wellbeing are critical and differed. Exposure to health hazards related to climate change affects different people and different communities to different degrees. Climate change can therefore affect human health in two principle routes: By changing the seriousness or recurrence of health issues that are as of now influenced by atmosphere or climate elements; and second, by making phenomenal or unforeseen health issues or health threats in spots where they have not previously occurred.
Renewable energy is becoming an increasingly important issue in today’s world. In addition to the rising cost of fossil fuels and the threat of Climate Change, there has also been positive developments in this field which include improvements in efficiency as well as diminishing prices. Renewable energy is energy that is generated from natural processes that are continuously replenished. This includes sunlight, geothermal heat, wind, tides, water, and various forms of biomass. This energy cannot be exhausted and is constantly renewed. Renewable energy plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. When renewable energy sources are used, the demand for fossil fuels is reduced. One major advantage with the use of renewable energy is that as it is renewable it is therefore sustainable and so will never run out. Renewable energy facilities generally require less maintenance than traditional generators. Their fuel being derived from natural and available resources reduces the costs of operation. Even more importantly, renewable energy produces little or no waste products such as carbon dioxide or other chemical pollutants, so has minimal impact on the environment.
Climate change can influence coastal areas in a variety of ways. Coasts are sensitive to ocean level ascent, changes in the frequency and intensity of storms, increments in precipitation, and hotter sea temperatures. Furthermore, rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) are bringing about the oceans to retain a greater amount of the gas and turn out to be more acidic. This rising acidity can significantly affect seaside and marine biological communities. Shoreline disintegration, coastal flooding, and water contamination, is as of now a worry in numerous ranges. Tending to the extra stretch of climate change may require new ways to deal with overseeing land, water, waste, and biological communities. Developing populaces and advancement along the coasts increase the vulnerability of beach front biological systems to ocean level ascent. Advancement can obstruct the inland relocation of wetlands accordingly of ocean level ascent and change the measure of silt conveyed to coastal regions and quickens disintegration.
Climate disasters or climate hazards are dangerous weather phenomena that threaten life and property. Climate change projections show that there will be continuing increases in the occurrence and severity of some extreme events by the end of the century, while for other extremes the links to climate change are more uncertain. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) aims to reduce the damage caused by natural hazards like earthquakes, floods, droughts and cyclones, through an ethic of prevention. Disaster risk reduction includes disciplines like disaster management, disaster mitigation and disaster preparedness, but DRR is also part of sustainable development. In order for development activities to be sustainable they must also reduce disaster risk.
Carbon Farming is simply farming in a way that reduces Greenhouse Gas emissions or captures and holds carbon in vegetation and soils. It is managing land, water, plants and animals to meet the triple challenge of landscape restoration, climate change and food security. It seeks to reduce emissions in its production processes, while increasing production and sequestering carbon in the landscape.The benefits of carbon farming include carbon sequestration, reduced erosion and soil loss, improved soil structure, increased soil fertility, reduced soil salinity, healthier soils, vegetation and animals, increased biodiversity, buffering against drought and greater water efficiency.
The ocean and the atmosphere are so completely interwoven that transactions encompassing future climate change moderation and adjustment activities can't be finished without thought of both. The coupling of these two worldwide frameworks directs the world's atmosphere as well as gives all species, including people, a good situation, in which to develop and replicate. Pretty much as our changing atmosphere is affecting changes on the land, climate change is likewise having an impact underneath the influxes of the world's oceans and waterfront conduits. The oceans have warmed in the course of the most recent 50 years, with the largest warming being found in the upper several hundred meters. Ocean heat content decides ocean surface temperature, as well as influences ocean level and streams. Flooding is turning out to be more successive along the coastline as ocean level ascents. ocean has turned out to be more acidic in the course of recent decades in view of expanded levels of barometrical carbon dioxide, which dissolves in the water.
Many chemical compounds present in Earth's atmosphere behave as 'greenhouse gases'. These are gases which allow direct sunlight (relative shortwave energy) to reach the Earth's surface unimpeded. As the shortwave energy (that in the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectra) heats the surface, longer-wave (infrared) energy (heat) is reradiated to the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases absorb this energy, thereby allowing less heat to escape back to space, and 'trapping' it in the lower atmosphere. Many greenhouse gases occur naturally in the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and nitrous oxide, while others are synthetic. Those that are man-made include the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), as well as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Atmospheric concentrations of both the natural and man-made gases have been rising over the last few centuries due to the industrial revolution. As the global population has increased and our reliance on fossil fuels (such as coal, oil and natural gas) has been firmly solidified, so emissions of these gases have risen. While gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally in the atmosphere, through our interference with the carbon cycle (through burning forest lands, or mining and burning coal), we artificially move carbon from solid storage to its gaseous state, thereby increasing atmospheric concentrations.
The challenges the world is facing due to climate change are renewable energy and low carbon opportunities, urban mobility, coral bleaching, effect on agriculture, forestry and water use, pollution and effect on health.
Climate change economics deals with fundamentals of economic theories and concepts, climate change impacts on global economies and markets, quantifying disruptions and costs associated with climate change, climate variability and extreme events, accounting for the economics and future prices of energy, water, air, and other natural resources, cost/benefit analysis of climate action (or inaction), collecting and integrating information from a variety of sources.
Climate refugees are people who must leave their homes and communities because of the effects of climate change and global warming. Climate refugees, also known by dozens of other names, including environmental refugees, eco-migrants, environmental migrants and environmental displacees. Climate refugees belong to a larger group of immigrants known as environmental refugees. Environmental refugees include immigrants forced to flee because of natural disasters, such as volcanoes and tsunamis. More than 13 million Americans could become climate refugees by 2100 if the worst sea-level rise comes to pass, new research suggests. Environmental refugees are a particularly difficult problem for governments and policy-makers to cope with due to the variety of environmental disasters that can have dramatic impacts on the forced migration of people. Additionally, many of the states most gravely affected by environmental disasters and resulting migration are in the developing world, meaning they may lack resources to adequately address the detrimental effects of these crises.
Climate change is transforming ecosystems on an extraordinary scale, at an extraordinary pace. As each species responds to its changing environment, its interactions with the physical world and the organisms around it change too. Climate change is happening on a global scale, but the ecological impacts are often local and vary from place to place. Living things are intimately connected to their physical surroundings. Even small changes in the temperature of the air, the moisture in the soil, or the salinity of the water can have significant effects. Each species is affected by such changes individually, but those individual impacts can quickly reverberate through the intricate web of life that makes up an ecosystem. Shifts in species’ ranges (the locations in which they can survive and reproduce), and shifts in phenology (the timing of biological activities that take place seasonally) are the two important types of ecological impacts of climate change have been observed.